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Key Definitions
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HOW TO USE THIS RESOURCE

PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH

BACKGROUND

KEY DEFINITIONS

SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL MODEL FOR DRIVER SAFETY

SHARED RISK FACTORS

SHARED PROTECTIVE FACTORS

BEHAVIOR CHANGE STRATEGIES

RECOMMENDATIONS


APPENDIX A: PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION GUIDE

 

APPENDIX B: EXPLORING KEY FACTORS FOR RISKY DRIVING


COMPLETE RESOURCE DOCUMENT




 

Terms such as risk factors, protective factors, behavior change strategies, and evidence-based strategies can vary across disciplines. This resource uses the definitions for these terms that appear in the table below.

 

 

Key Definitions Relevant to Report*

 

  • Risk Factors: Any attribute, characteristic, or exposure at the biological, psychological, family, community, or cultural level that precedes and is associated with a higher likelihood of negative outcomes. These attributes, characteristics, or exposures may increase the likelihood of individuals engaging in risky driving behaviors. Examples of risk factors include not using seat belts, substance use, high risk tolerance, or insufficient sleep.
  • Protective Factors: Any attribute, characteristic or influence at the biological, psychological, family, community, or cultural level that precedes and is associated with a higher likelihood of positive outcomes and lessens the likelihood of negative consequences. These attributes, characteristics, or influences may decrease the likelihood of individuals engaging in risky driving behaviors. Examples of protective factors include positive parenting models, more driving experience, driving while alert, or resistance to peer pressure.
  • Behavior Change Strategies: Interventions and countermeasures, informed by social and behavioral science theory, to promote healthy/safe behaviors or reduce unhealthy/unsafe behaviors. Behavior change strategies may emanate from modern-day behavioral models and theories including a range of approaches, or within the framework of the four E’s of injury prevention (education, engineering, enforcement, and emergency medical systems) to address risk and protective factors.  
  • Evidence-Based Strategies: Interventions and countermeasures that have been successfully tested and found to be effective and efficacious. Strategies can be categorized into a variety of levels such as effective, promising, or emerging (Brownson, Fielding, & Maylahn, 2009).

*These definitions were adapted from the following agencies: World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, The Australian Government Department of Health and Canada Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness

 

This resource examines six aspects of risky driving behaviors: aggressive driving and speeding, alcohol-impaired and other drug-impaired driving, distracted driving, drowsy and fatigued driving, and seat belt non-use by adults. A broader swath of factors influences an individual’s likelihood to engage in risky driving behavior, including driver’s age, gender, income, marital status, social standing, personality and emotional state. For a more detailed explanation of these factors, please see Appendix B.

 

 

 
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